Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn how to use the Oracle
NULLIF() function by practical examples.
Introduction to Oracle
NULLIF() function accepts two arguments. It returns a null value if the two arguments are equal. In case the arguments are not equal, the
NULLIF() function returns the first argument.
The following illustrates the syntax of the Oracle
In this syntax, the
e1 cannot be a literal NULL.
If both expressions evaluates to numeric values, then Oracle determines the argument with the higher numeric precedence, implicitly converts the other argument to that data type, and returns a value of that data type.
In case both expressions evaluate to non-numeric values, then they must be of the same data type, otherwise, Oracle issues an error.
For example, the following statement returns a null value because the first argument equals the second one.
SELECT NULLIF(100,100) -- null FROM dual;
However, the following example returns the first value (100) because the two arguments are different:
SELECT NULLIF(100,200) -- 0 FROM dual;
The following example causes an error because the first argument is literal NULL:
SELECT NULLIF(NULL,100) FROM dual;
Here is the error:
ORA-00932: inconsistent datatypes: expected - got CHAR
The following statement also causes an error because the data types of arguments are different.
SELECT NULLIF(10,'20') FROM dual;
The error is:
ORA-00932: inconsistent datatypes: expected NUMBER got CHAR
To fix it, we use the
TO_CHAR() function to convert the first argument to a value of character data type:
SELECT NULLIF(TO_CHAR(10),'20') -- 10 FROM dual;
NULLIF() function is logically equivalent to the following searched
CASE WHEN e1 = e2 THEN NULL ELSE e1 END
NULLIF() function example
The following statement creates a table named
budgets that stores sales employees and their current and previous year sales budgets.
CREATE TABLE budgets ( salesman_id NUMBER NOT NULL, fiscal_year SMALLINT, current_year NUMBER, previous_year NUMBER );
If a budget has not been determined, it is null. The following statements insert budgets for some sales employees:
INSERT INTO budgets VALUES(54,2017,120000, 100000); INSERT INTO budgets VALUES(55,2017,200000, 200000); INSERT INTO budgets VALUES(56,2017,NULL, 150000); INSERT INTO budgets VALUES(57,2017,175000, 175000); INSERT INTO budgets VALUES(59,2017,220000, 200000);
The following query retrieves the sales employees and their current year’s budgets. If the current year’s budget is the same as the previous year’s one, it returns a literal string “Same as last year”:
SELECT salesman_id, COALESCE(TO_CHAR(NULLIF(current_year, previous_year)), 'Same as last year') budget FROM budgets WHERE current_year IS NOT NULL;
The following statement is equivalent to the one above but uses the
CASE expression instead.
SELECT salesman_id, CASE WHEN current_year = previous_year THEN 'Same as last year' ELSE TO_CHAR(current_year) END FROM budgets WHERE current_year IS NOT NULL;
In this tutorial, you have learned how to use the Oracle
NULLIF() function to return a null if the first argument equals the second one.